A problem of reducing a human factor negative influence reduction upon nuclear safety should be solved on the whole at the expense of introducing integrated management systems with a comprehensive application of regulatory control, training and inspections. This paper covers FSUE VO "Safety" and Training and Methodical Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety approach towards training matters, which is one of the key factors in implementing quality and safety management systems.
Issued at the turn of the year 2006 latest IAEA documents GS-R-3 “The Management System for Facilities and Activities Safety Requirements” , GS-G-3.1 “Application of the Management System for Facilities and Activities Safety Guide”  and the documents that are still being developed DS-349 “Application of the Management Systems for Nuclear Facilities” and DS-113 “Management Systems for Regulatory Bodies” determine the new approaches to the management quality of the facilities of nuclear energy utilization (FNEU) in the context of the nuclear and radiation safety requirements. Quality and safety management systems appear to be the basic mechanism to eliminate the negative influence of the human factor on the operational safety of the nuclear energy utilization objects. Authority and responsibilities of the Federal Environmental Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service regarding the normalization of requirements to the FNEU management quality and inspections of conformance of the FNEU management quality to the established requirements determine the necessity of improvement of licensing and oversight activities on this issue.
2 THE NECESSARY TRAINING ACTIVITIES
The Russian Federal law, regulating the nuclear energy utilization, states that the under- law regulatory documents – rules and regulations that are approved by the Russian regulatory authority and are mandatory for in the field of the nuclear energy utilization should take into account the requirements of the standards of the international organizations in the activities of which the Russian Federation participates. Therefore the harmonization of Russian requirements to the management systems within the nuclear energy field with the IAEA requirements (such work is in progress with the help of the regulatory authorities TSOs) is considered to be of high importance.
The development of management systems complying with the codes of best practice adopted by IAEA and oriented to the human factor negative influence reduction not only meets the regulatory authority task of providing the governmental guarantees of nuclear and radiation safety, but also actualizes the responsibility of the facilities and other nuclear industry organizations for the FNEU safe operation including the procurement and the rendering of services of proper quality.
Under these circumstances the development of training programs and of the corresponding training material, providing the development, implementation and assessment of the up-to-date management systems in the field of the nuclear energy utilization seems expedient. Timely and qualitative training will allow:
- facilities and organizations to minimize risks and therefore the expenses through reduction of unfavourable events caused by the negative influence of human factor ;
- the regulatory authority to perform the qualified support to fulfill the task of providing the governmental guarantees of safety .
For this purpose the Training and Methodological Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety under the methodological support of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority TSO FSUE VO “Safety” started developing the training programs and material on development, implementation and assessment of the management systems complying with the IAEA requirements.
2.1 Training Principles
Training of facilities specialists and regulatory authority personnel in the field of management systems should be based on the following principles:
- Assurance of personnel competency matching a modern level of science and technology development;
- “End-to-end” training of specialists (i.e. the one covering stages form secondary to higher professional education, as well as periodic refresher training);
- Systematic approach to training in line with modern IAEA requirements;
- Uniformity of methodological approaches to training of both facilities specialists and regulatory authority personnel;
- Knowledge management (provision for formalization, accumulation, security, transfer and distribution of professional knowledge);
- Openness for international cooperation in the area of staff training and retraining;
- Encouragement of trainees’ activity (setting up an efficient motivation for training including refresher training);
- Orientation at comparison of obtained at training sessions information with trainees’ available practical experience;
- Practical direction (training shall be arranged on the basis of practical needs);
- Command methods of work arrangement (mastering skills of command work is of a special significance for inspectors and auditors participating in inspection and control actions as a part of a team (commission, group);
- Study of new approaches to solving problems, generation and synthesis of new knowledge.
2.2 Training Programs Content and Format
The training programs will include the following training modules: legislative framework of the nuclear energy utilization in Russia, quality management, metrological aspects of quality management, ISO 9000:2000 standards overview, technical regulation, compliance confirmation and certification, safety management, risks management, introduction to the ecological management with the ISO 14000 standards overview, the professional safety and health management fundamentals based on the OHSAS 18000 standards. The significant time will be paid to the IAEA NUSS studying as well as to the Russian and international best practice of creation and assessment of quality management systems at the NPPs and other FNEUs. Moreover, the training modules on business-processes engineering and audit is planned. These modules are supposed to have a different depth of subject matter depending on the professional group of trainees.
The module structure allows to compile the training program for the specific professional group of trainees. The list of modules required is determined according to the systematic approach to training methodology - training needs assessment based on the competences analyses.
The approach described allows to significantly help the facilities to implement the up-to-date management systems by the beginning of the transition period related to the implementation of modern and latest international standards based national rules and regulations for management systems.
The authors gratefully acknowledge advice and comments on the presented approach made by the Rostehnadzor staff. Also the authors thank TMC NRS professors and trainers for participating in training and educational programs developing. Special thanks to FSUE VO “Safety” experts for their contribution into the training programs development.
 GS-R-3 “The Management System for Facilities and Activities Safety Requirements”, IAEA, Vienna, 2006.
 GS-G-3.1 “Application of the Management System for Facilities and Activities Safety Guide”, IAEA, Vienna, 2006.
 E. Kapralov, Refresher Training as an Important Factor Affecting Safety of Atomic Energy Utilization Facilities, Proc. Int. Conf. Nuclear Energy for New Europe '05, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 5-8, 2005, pp. 106-107.
 E. Kapralov, Yu. Kapralov, Vl. Kozlov, Development of the Personnel Training and Qualification System og the Russian Federation Nuclear Reagulatory Authority, Proc. Int. Conf. Nuclear Energy for New Europe '06, Portoroz, Slovenia, Sept. 18-21, 2006, pp. 77-78.